According to STARTHealthCare, three out of four Americans experience foot problems in a lifetime despite the fact that only a small group of individuals are born with foot problems. Calluses are
caused by friction, and because feet tend to slide in sandals, calluses build up more quickly in summer.
Unlike edible fungi or mushrooms that live on dead vegetable matter, the fungi and yeast that infect the feet are specialized dermatophytes, meaning that they only feed on keratinized tissue such as
hair, skin and nails. Fungal infection in the foot can be confined to the nails and may then spread to the skin, or the other way round, starting on the skin and then infecting the nails. Other names
are tinea unguium, dermatophytic onychia, dermatophytosis of the nail, or ringworm of the nail. In the case of dermatophyte fungi and yeast, small invasions are usually dealt with by your body's own
natural resistance or defence mechanisms, provided you have a healthy immune system at the time. The first sign of fungal infection in the nails is a slight discolouration of the nail plate. Remember
that pressure or friction is the cause of callous.
For example, if you have a callus on the bottom of your foot, you need to protect it by not going barefoot, by wearing shoes that are more gentle on your feet or even by picking up some callus
cushions The goal here is to make sure that it doesn't get any worse and to give it a chance to soften. This can be done by using a salicylic acid based callus remover You regularly apply this stuff
and it slowly but surely peels away the layers of hardened skin. These are essentially a file that you rub on you callus to remove the excess skin. Bear in mind that the built up layers of skin are
dead so this isn't painful. None of them are going to give you perfect soft skin overnight. Also, spend some time thinking about how you got your calluses in the first place. Once you are free from
calluses a few small changes may be all that is required to make sure that they are gone for good. Corns and calluses are rarely serious.
Metatarsal pads, soft insole inserts, and modifying standing areas with a soft surface (e.g., a rubber floor mat) may relieve the discomfort of tender calluses. Custom-moldedarch supports (called
orthotics ) or over-the-counter arch supports may help if flatfeet contribute to the problem. If one of the metatarsals is too low, an orthotic cutout can equalize pressure on the ball of the foot.
Because the thickness of the callus causes pressure, reducing the overgrown tissue by soaking the feet in warm water and filing down the callus with a pumice stone to smooth down the thick tissue may
be helpful. In severe cases, podiatrists may use a device called a sterile surgical blade to remove the outer layers of thickened skin. In some cases, one of the metatarsals may be too low or too
poorly positioned for orthotics to work.
Patients with poor vision cutting nails too deep beneath crease line can lead to skin breakage and in patients with poor blood flow to foot can lead to major amputation.Proper nail cutting techniques
should be learnt,toe nails should be cut straight,not beneath creaseline. At the center of a corn is often a very dense knot of skin called a core, which is located over the area of greatest friction
or pressure. Firm, dry corns that form on the upper surfaces of the toes are called hard corns. Pliable, moist corns that form between the toes are called soft corns.